Drug abuse is implicated in at least three types of drug-related offenses: Individuals who use illicit drugs are more likely to commit crimes, and it is common for many offenses, including violent crimes, to be committed by individuals who had used drugs or alcohol prior to committing the crime, or who were using at the time of the offense. In a survey of State and Federal prisoners, BJS estimated that about half of the prisoners met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders DSM criteria for drug abuse or dependence, and yet fewer than 20 percent who needed treatment received it Chandler et al. Of those surveyed,
Page 13 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Summary of a Workshop. The National Academies Press. The direction of the causal link between education and juvenile delinquency is fundamentally complex.
Early aggressive behavior may lead to difficulties in the classroom. These, in turn, might result in delinquency. Equally, delinquency could be another manifestation of whatever characteristics got the child into trouble with school authorities in the first place.
Some studies have Drug delinquency reductions in delinquent behavior when a teenager drops out of school. Others have shown increasing rates of delinquency following school dropout.
In addition, many studies have shown that family and child characteristics predict both problems in school and an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior. Despite the ongoing discussion of the direction of causality, the evidence is clear that poor school performance, truancy, and leaving school at a young age are connected to juvenile delinquency Bachman et al.
Several factors linked to delinquency, aggression, and violence have been identified. For example, research has found that verbal and reading deficits are linked to victimization both inside and outside Page 14 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Delinquent peer associations may also be a consequence of school failure when a student comes to reject academic achievement and prosocial behavior as legitimate goals and values.
Rolf Loeber, of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, cautioned that the relationship between delinquency and school performance should not be oversimplified. It may be that progression from delinquent behavior to school failure is contingent on other factors, since not every offending juvenile experiences school failure and not every failing student commits offenses.
In addition, not every act of delinquency affects school performance in the same way. The seriousness of delinquent behavior may determine whether and to what extent school performance suffers. It appears that poor school performance is a more severe problem among serious violent delinquents.
In a review of the literature on the predictors of youth violence, Hawkins and his colleagues concluded that serious and violent delinquents had more school-related problems e.
Inversely, studies have found that students who do not perform well academically are more likely to be delinquent. The Cambridge Study on Delinquent Development and the Pittsburgh Youth Study have both found that low school achievement predicts adolescent delinquency Maguin and Loeber, In a meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between academic performance and delinquency and interventions designed to improve school achievement and reduce offending, Maguin and Loeber found that poor school performance was related to the frequency of delinquent offending, the seriousness of offenses, and persistence in delinquency offending.
There are, however, methodological issues that limit study findings. Page 15 Share Cite Suggested Citation: While time limitations did not allow for an exhaustive review of the relevant research at the workshop, participants were able to discuss the important role that peers play in the relationship between delinquency and poor school performance.
That peers exercise influence on the development of delinquent behavior is a common perception among researchers. Workshop participants discussed three issues related to the effects of peers on delinquency: Guided counseling programs, for example, have been mandated in some states.
These programs are often administered to students in groups. As part of a study designed to measure and code interactions among teenage boys assembled to discuss problems in their relationships with parents and peers, Dishion and his colleagues found that interactions among the boys were influenced by the content of their conversations.
Conversation was classified into two categories: Researchers observed that the nonverbal reactions to rule-breaking and norm-accepting topics and activities communicated either positive or negative reinforcement for the associated behavior Dishion et al.
Among nondelinquent dyads, normative talk led to positive reinforcement in the form of laughter. Alternatively, in dyads in which the members had some experience with delinquency, normative talk failed to elicit a positive response; only rule-breaking talk received positive feedback.
The researchers concluded from this study that delinquent peer groups are organized around rule-breaking talk Dishion et al. These findings have been replicated among delinquent and nondelin- Page 16 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Although adolescent girls differed from adolescent boys in terms of the topics they discussed and the rules they broke, the deviancy training process was similar.There is an evident link between juvenile drug use and delinquency.
A study explored the connection between delinquency and the use of nonmedical prescription drugs in teens. As prescription drug abuse is on the rise in America its abuse has not left out a crucial group of people; adolescents. The National Institute of Justice sponsors research on alcohol and others drugs in the context of the criminal justice system to promote effective law enforcement, court and corrections responses to illegal drug markets and criminal behavior related.
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