Origin and meaning of the term humanism The ideal of humanitas The history of the term humanism is complex but enlightening. It was first employed as humanismus by 19th-century German scholars to designate the Renaissance emphasis on Classical studies in education. These studies were pursued and endorsed by educators known, as early as the late 15th century, as umanisti—that is, professors or students of Classical literature. The word umanisti derives from the studia humanitatisa course of Classical studies that, in the early 15th century, consisted of grammarpoetryrhetorichistoryand moral philosophy.
Origins and History A name synonymous with the Italian Renaissance, the Medici family arose from humble origins to rule Florence, sponsor artists, and dominate Florentine culture for nearly years.
Their political contributions to Florence are rivaled if not exceeded by their patronage of a few of the Renaissance's greatest artists, including Sandro Botticelli and Michelangelo. The city of Florence, like a number of Italian city-states, came to power through conquest and commerce.
A relatively obscure city before the 12th century, Florence managed to grow and prosper despite both external conflicts, especially those the city inaugurated against her neighbors in an effort to control the territory around the Arno River; and internal conflicts, the greatest of which was the battle between rival sections of the Guelph family that began around The power of Florence depended on trade, especially in wool, and banking.
Those families who managed these sources of capital played an important part in ruling the city. While nobility and birth continued to engender more prestige and influence as it did elsewhere in Europe, the wealth and importance of the burghers to the city's prosperity meant that merchants had a share in government.
The rise of the Medici is partly explained by their involvement in civic affairs, particularly in the highly Medici rise to prominence merchant guild. The fame and prominence enjoyed by the Medici was largely the result of ambitious and industrious predecessors.
Originally from the farmlands north of Florence, Italy, the first Medici left their native Mugello ca. Like many families, the Medici seem to have made a living as merchants, though banking became an important line of work for the Medici in the 13th century as well.
Ardingo de' Medici became the prior, or head, of the Florentine merchant guild in the s. His rise to such an important position presaged the elevation of other Medici to Florence's ruling council, the Signoria, over the next few centuries.
The Signoria, comprised of nobles, important burghers, and intellectuals, was the oligarchic institution that ran the Florentine republic. Medici political clout grew even more through their financial acumen as bankers. Founded inthe Medici Bank quickly expanded and opened up branches as far away as England.
In time, the Medici Bank became the main financial institution of the papacy. With a ready source of capital, the Medici were able to turn to such new lines of commerce as trading spices, jewelry, silk, and fruit. In addition, their ever-increasing financial power opened up new opportunities in civic government.
The early 15th century saw the advance of the Medici into the highest ranks of Florentine government. By mid-century, the Medici began to outdistance their main political rivals, the Albizzi, and under Cosimo de' MediciMedici ascendancy was assured. Cosimo did not gain control easily.
His chief rival, Rinaldo degli Albizzi, filled one council with his supporters in an attempt to place blame on Cosimo for the war with the city of Lucca, a campaign that had proved costly. While Rinaldo's allies were unable to order Cosimo's execution, they were able to exile him to Venice ina hollow victory that soon allowed the chief Medici to return to Florence in strength.
Using his family's bank, his own political supporters, and relying on his popularity with the populace, Cosimo was able to return a year later, and the Albizzi's hopes for dominance were crushed.
For 30 years, he wisely managed state affairs. A shrewd politician, Cosimo tended to back projects with his wealth and act through supporters, tactics which downplayed his own importance and gave his rivals little room to attack him. He did, however, take full advantage of those events that would solidify his popularity, His connection to the Peace of Lodi ina treaty between Venice and Milan that brought peace to the region, is an example of that political savvy.
Lorenzo de' Mediciknown as "Lorenzo the Magnificent," who ruled Florence during —, was as able an administrator as his grandfather Cosimo. His style of rule was similar as well. Like Cosimo, he cleverly worked in conjunction with the civic council. Of importance to subsequent Medici, Lorenzo married into an important and well-established noble family, the Orsini, which gave the wealth and political clout of the Medici the support of aristocratic blood.Humanism, system of education and mode of inquiry that originated in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and lausannecongress2018.com term is alternatively applied to a variety of Western beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on .
lausannecongress2018.com covers the historical interests and projects of amateur historian Paul Budde; tracing the broader Budde family history back through North Germany and the Baltic region.. His personal interest is in medieval North Western Europe. Also covered is .
lausannecongress2018.com covers the historical interests and projects of amateur historian Paul Budde; tracing the broader Budde family history back through North Germany and the Baltic region..
His personal interest is in medieval North Western Europe. Also covered is . Medici Family: Origins and History A name synonymous with the Italian Renaissance, the Medici family arose from humble origins to rule Florence, sponsor artists, . Chief Minister to King Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu was the architect of a new France in the seventeenth century and the force behind the nation's rise as a European power.
Humanism, system of education and mode of inquiry that originated in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and lausannecongress2018.com term is alternatively applied to a variety of Western beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on .