History[ edit ] Precursors of transhumanism[ edit ] According to Nick Bostromtranscendentalist impulses have been expressed at least as far back as the quest for immortality in the Epic of Gilgameshas well as in historical quests for the Fountain of Youththe Elixir of Lifeand other efforts to stave off aging and death. The late 19th to early 20th century movement known as Russian cosmism also incorporated some ideas which later developed into the core of the transhumanist movement. Fundamental ideas of transhumanism were first advanced in by the British geneticist J.
To make effective use of our map requires at least 37 "recent" Y-chromosome markers rather than the 12 ancient ones revealed by basic haplogroup tests, and SNP or subclade identification. Popular Perceptions and misperceptions "Racialist" descriptions of perceived "racial" characteristics of so-called sub-races Pontids, Dinarics, Mediterranids, Armenids, Saharids, Arabids, and so forth are still entertained in certain quarters.
Viewed in terms of the human genome, race as the term is commonly used and understood is a relatively insignificant or at best superficial and arbitrary consideration, and we are already seeing more reliance on purely genetic identification.
Genetic diversity is a reality. While race, as the term is traditionally used, is fast becoming an outmoded concept, specific gene markers based on relatively "recent" mutations are naturally linked to persons Philosophy longevity thesis common origins i. The legitimate scientific basis of regional racial distinctions but not racialism is genetic differentiation over thousands of generations.
Genetic studies have proven beyond doubt that, ultimately, we are all descended from the same people. Implications of "recent" migrations and cultural factors involving the human race, particularly over the last 8, years, may be discussed even debated for decades to come.
Outside academic and scientific circles, much of the debate finds fertile ground among those seeking to prove that their ancestors were "black" or "white" rather than humans living in a certain region or identified with a certain culture.
While it might be overzealous to define all such people as racists, it is clear that their views, based on interpretations and misinterpretations regarding gene markers and mutations originating in the last 8, years and the "historical" period of the last rather than those of the last 80, years, are outdated.
Prevalent stereotypes and ignorant authors outside Italy sometimes paint a superficial physical picture of Sicilians which bears little similarity to reality. While individuals having extremely light blonde hair represent only a small part of the Sicilian population, many Sicilians have blue or green eyes and light complexions and red hair.
In Sicily the range of complexions, from cream to olive, is striking, and combinations are interesting --blue-eyed dark brunettes and brown-eyed strawberry blonds. Moreover, the idea that northern Italians are overwhelmingly "lighter" than southerners is statistically inaccurate.
Anybody who spends even a few weeks travelling the country could plainly observe this. Let's remember, of course, that superficial physical traits are only a tiny part of an individual's genetic profile. Sicily, more than most other parts of Italy, has had a particularly wide influx of "immigrants" over the centuries, creating a greater genetic diversity than one might find in some other regions of Europe.
Sicilian history and ethnology are well documented. Not surprisingly, genetic studies of the Sicilian population for the ancient and medieval periods generally confirm what is known historically.
As genetic conclusions are keyed to generations rather than years, historical knowledge sometimes helps to place genetic developments in their proper context. For example, the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Enna and Monreale may be attributed to genes brought with the Normans, while diseases of the thalassemia group may have arrived with Phoenician, Greek or Arab peoples.
Certain superficial physical traits probably were widely introduced by specific groups --blue eyes by Normans and Longobards, kinky hair by Arabs, and so forth. That said, apart from avoidance of "inbreeding," the most important aspect of any migration and amalgamation is usually cultural rather than physical.
We've come to accept that most Vikings had blue eyes, but would their achievements be attenuated if the Norsemen were all brown-eyed? Are there connections between genetic traits and ethnic culture? In a few respects there are, though perhaps not in ways that many of us imagine.
Here are a few examples: Thus a particular range of stature might come to be identified with that population. Exceptionally acute vision is another trait beneficial to the hunters which might find its way into the gene pool.
Perhaps such a food might not find its way into the local cuisine. Conversely, if it were a dietary staple, those allergic to it might not survive to transmit their allergy to offspring. Thus the earliest Elymian, Phoenician and Greek art in Sicily often --though not always-- reflects the physical appearance of its artists, or at least their aesthetic standards.
Moreover, if a certain random physical trait small feet, big ears, green eyes, flat noses, long fingers, excessive body hair were considered especially beautiful, it might eventually become dominant in a population as people chose their mates based on such factors; consequently, a society's visual arts and literature would reflect this beauty standard.
Such factors would seem more prevalent among smaller, isolated populations, but the principle is valid. Consequently, a certain complexion becomes associated with a specific group.
This is relative, of course, but in a society where most people are rather short it is possible that such a game might not be developed as it would in a society of taller individuals. In effect, a physical characteristic spawns a cultural one. This would influence attitudes perhaps greater tolerance of aged parentswhich in turn could influence the social roles of the elders.
Generalities aside, distinctions often exist between a person's ethnic or even genetic identity and "nationalist" or group identities. As a nation state, a united "Italy" has only existed since the s, and being "Italian" or German or Russian means different things to different people.
In the long term, passing political ideas for example the Fascist, Nazi and Communist governments in the case of the three countries mentioned have little effect on ethnic identities formed over the course of many centuries. Beyond generalities collectively related to language, history, art, music, cuisine, etc.
Statistically, most of today's Italians are at least nominally Roman Catholic, but many belong to other religions or profess noneand those in the minority are no less Italian than those in the majority, just as a Neapolitan's dislike for pasta or opera makes him no less "Italian" than anybody else in Naples.
Much remains to be discovered in comparative population genetics and its integration with historical knowledge. The mapping of the human genome is only a useful first step.About 72, years ago, the effects of a major volcanic eruption (Toba) with global consequences killed off many humans.
By some estimates, as few as 2, humans survived the disaster --in Africa. Was the document difficult for you to understand? Yes No. Which of the sections were you MOST interested in? Introduction Science and Engineering Interoperability.
Jun 02, · #9. Philosophy, always gets me. I have a few friends that dropped out of the business college to persue this degree. I’d rather pay for my kid to go to bartending school.
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On the other hand, I got my preferred outcome, with the House controlled by one party, the Senate by the other, making it less likely that Congress would do things. University of California. Los Angeles. Ground Calibration of an Orbiting Spacecraft Radar Transmitter.
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