Intro to Caribbean History September Caribbean history comprises of a long and tumultuous colonial past. First by the race issues created by the Europeans ten secondly by petty jealousies each race, East Indian and African, had towards each other. But let my point about the ethnic divide be put with more focus:
South Africa Table of Contents Schools in South Africa, as elsewhere, reflect society's political philosophy and goals. The earliest mission schools aimed to inculcate literacy and new social and religious values, and schools for European immigrants aimed to preserve the values of previous generations.
In the twentieth century, the education system assumed economic The indians struggle for survival as it prepared young Africans for low-wage labor and protected the privileged white minority from competition.
From the s to the mids, no other social institution reflected the government's racial philosophy of apartheid more clearly than the education system.
Because the schools were required both to teach and to practice apartheid, they were especially vulnerable to the weaknesses of the system.
Many young people during the s were committed to destroying the school system because of its identification with apartheid. Student strikes, vandalism, and violence seriously undermined the schools' ability to function. By the early s, shortages of teachers, classrooms, and equipment had taken a further toll on education.
South Africa's industrial economy, with its strong reliance on capital-intensive development, provided relatively few prospects for employment for those who had only minimal educational credentials, or none at all. Nationwide literacy was less than 60 percent throughout the s, and an estimatedunskilled and uneducated young people faced unemployment by the end of the decade, according to the respected Education Foundation.
At the same time, job openings for highly skilled workers and managers far outpaced the number of qualified applicants. These problems were being addressed in the political reforms of the s, but the legacies of apartheid--the insufficient education of the majority of the population and the backlog of deficiencies in the school system--promised to challenge future governments for decades, or perhaps generations.
Early Development Many African societies placed strong emphasis on traditional forms of education well before the arrival of Europeans.
Adults in Khoisan- and Bantu-speaking societies, for example, had extensive responsibilities for transmitting cultural values and skills within kinship-based groups and sometimes within larger organizations, villages, or districts. Education involved oral histories of the group, tales of heroism and treachery, and practice in the skills necessary for survival in a changing environment.
In many Nguni-speaking chiefdoms of southern Africa, highly regimented age-groups of young men acquired knowledge and skills vital to their survival and prestige under the instruction of respected military, religious, or political leaders.
The socialization of women, although sometimes done within age-groups, was more often in small groups of siblings or cousins, and it emphasized domestic and agricultural skills necessary to the survival of the family. In all of these settings, the transmission of religious values was a vital element of education.
The socialization of African youth was sometimes interrupted by warfare or political upheaval. More serious disruptions occurred in the late nineteenth century and the twentieth century, when government policies drew large numbers of adult men away from their homes for long periods of employment in mines or urban industries.
Women were heads of households for months or years at a time. And after apartheid became entrenched in the early s, security forces sometimes removed entire villages from their land and relocated them to less desirable areas in the interest of white economic development. The earliest European schools in South Africa were established in the Cape Colony in the late seventeenth century by Dutch Reformed Church elders committed to biblical instruction, which was necessary for church confirmation see Early European Settlement, ch.
In rural areas, itinerant teachers meesters taught basic literacy and math skills. British mission schools proliferated afterwhen the first members of the London Missionary Society arrived in the Cape Colony.
Language soon became a sensitive issue in education. At least two dozen English-language schools operated in rural areas of the Cape Colony bybut their presence rankled among devout Afrikaners, who considered the English language and curriculum irrelevant to rural life and Afrikaner values.
Throughout the nineteenth century, Afrikaners resisted government policies aimed at the spread of the English language and British values, and many educated their children at home or in the churches. After British colonial officials began encouraging families to emigrate from Britain to the Cape Colony inthe Colonial Office screened applicants for immigration for background qualifications.
They selected educated families, for the most part, to establish a British presence in the Cape Colony, and after their arrival, these parents placed a high priority on education. Throughout this time, most religious schools in the eastern Cape accepted Xhosa children who applied for admission, and in Natal many other Nguni-speaking groups sent their children to mission schools after the mid-nineteenth century.
The government also financed teacher training classes for Africans as part of its pacification campaign throughout the nineteenth century.
By some 60 percent of school-age children in Natal were enrolled in school, as were 49 percent in the Cape Colony.
In the Afrikaner republics, however, enrollments remained low--only 12 percent in the Orange Free State and 8 percent in the Transvaal--primarily the result of Afrikaner resistance to British education. Enrollments in these republics increased toward the end of the century, after the government agreed to the use of Afrikaans in the schools and to allow Afrikaner parents greater control over primary and secondary education.Chased by 19th century soldiers into Florida's interior, the Indians battled inhospitable wetlands, poverty, and governmental neglect to gain independence and sovereignty.
Now, thanks to casino gambling, the tribe has grown rich. Black Indians are people of mixed Native American and African American heritage, who have strong ties to Native American culture. Many Indigenous peoples of the Eastern Woodlands, such as the Narragansett, Pequot, Wampanoag, Shinnecock, Choctaw, Muscogee Creek and Cherokee, have a significant degree of African ancestry..
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