Women's suffrage in states of the United States Early voting activity[ edit ] Lydia Taft —a wealthy widow, was allowed to vote in town meetings in Uxbridge, Massachusetts in
Western education in the 19th century The social and historical setting From the midth century to the closing years of the 18th century, new social, economic, and intellectual forces steadily quickened—forces that in the late 18th and the 19th centuries would weaken and, in many cases, end the old aristocratic absolutism.
The European expansion to new worlds overseas had stimulated commercial rivalry.
The new trade had increased national wealth and encouraged a sharp rise in the numbers and influence of the middle classes. These social and economic transformations—joined with technological changes involving the steam engine and the factory system —together produced industrialism, urbanizationand the beginnings of mass labour.
At the same time, intellectuals and philosophers were assaulting economic abuses, old unjust privileges, misgovernment, and intolerance. Their ideas, which carried a new emphasis on the worth of the individual—the citizen rather than the subject—helped to inspire political revolutions, sometimes successful, sometimes unsuccessful.
But, more importantly, they worked to make it impossible for any government—even the most reactionary—to disregard for long the welfare of common people.
Finally, there was a widespread psychological change: All these trends influenced the progress of education. One of the most significant results was the gradual acceptance of the view that education ought to be the responsibility of the state. Some countries, such as France and Germany, were inspired by a mixture of national aspiration and ideology to begin the establishment of public educational systems early in the 19th century.
Others, such as Great Britain and the United Statesunder the spell of laissez-fairehesitated longer before allowing the government to intervene in educational affairs. The new social and economic changes also called upon the schools, public and private, to broaden their aims and curricula.
Schools were expected not only to promote literacymental disciplineand good moral character but also to help prepare children for citizenshipfor jobs, and for individual development and success. Although teaching methods remained oriented toward textbook memorizing and strict discipline, a more sympathetic attitude toward children began to appear.
The monitorial systemalso called the Lancastrian system, became popular because, in the effort to overcome the shortage of teachers during the quick expansion of education, it enabled one teacher to use older children to act as monitors in teaching specific lessons to younger children in groups.
Similarly, the practice of dividing children into grades or classes according to their ages—a practice that began in 18th-century Germany—was to spread everywhere as schools grew larger.
The early reform movement: The influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau was profound and inestimable. Rousseauist ideas are seen also in the work of Friedrich Froebelwho emphasized self-activity as the central feature of childhood education, and in that of Johann Friedrich Herbartperhaps the most influential 19th-century thinker in the development of pedagogy as a science.
A few years later the enterprise failed, and Pestalozzi turned to writingproducing his chief work on method, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children, inand then began teaching again. Finally in he founded at Yverdon his famous boarding school, which flourished for 20 years, was attended by students from every country in Europeand was visited by many important figures of the time, including the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichtethe educators Froebel and Herbart, and the geographer Carl Ritter.
The pedagogy of Pestalozzi In spite of the quantity of his writings, it cannot be said that Pestalozzi ever wrote a complete and systematic account of his principles and methods; an outline of his theories must be deduced from his various writings and his work.
Education should be literally a drawing-out of this self-power, a development of abilities through activity—in the physical field by encouraging manual work and exercises, in the moral field by stimulating the habit of moral actions, and in the intellectual field by eliciting the correct use of the senses in observing concrete things accurately and making judgments upon them.Education: Education, discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships).
Education can be thought of. Women's suffrage in the United States of America, the legal right of women to vote, was established over the course of more than half a century, first in various states and localities, sometimes on a limited basis, and then nationally in The demand for women's suffrage began to gather strength in the s, emerging from the broader movement for women's rights.
development of women’s reforms: “In Massachusetts which in had 17, more females Suffrage was also an issue in the western areas of the United States. Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century, (New York: W.W. For these women, suffrage was the ultimate goal: by , 9 western states allowed women to vote in state and local elections; and in , the 19th Amendment took effect giving women the right to vote in federal elections.
The 19th-century suffragette movement to gain women's democratic rights was the most significant influence on the New Woman. Education and employment opportunities for women were increasing as western countries became more urban and industrialized. In dentistry: Dentistry in 19th-century Europe.
In English dentist Sir John Tomes led the formation of the first dental organization in England, the Odontological Society. It was through the activity of this group that the Royal Dental Hospital of London was established in